Friday, 20 April 2012

The Origins of Nanotechnology

It is not easy today to answer to the question "Where did nanotechnology come from?" The answer to this question is complex and requires necessarily be viewed in a historical perspective. However, the origin of nanotechnology converges always to three coordinates: Richard Phillips Feynman, December 29th, 1959 and "There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom".

Where did nanotechnology come from? To answer to that question in not easy and encompasses some uncertainties. However, I will try to do my best.

Firstly, I will present some definitions that I consider appropriate and timely, before any further reading.


Follows the definition of nanotechnology, according to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI):

"Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

Follows the definition of nanoscience, also according to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI):

Nanoscience is "the study of unique properties of matter at the nanoscale; an interdisciplinary field of science combining physics, materials science, the chemistry of complex molecules, and related disciplines."

Thus, while nanoscience studies the properties of matter at nanoscale, nanotechnology encompasses the understanding and control of matter at nanoscale.

Nanoscience has a nature of pure science. On the other hand, nanotechnology has a nature of applied science or applied technology.

It makes sense to say that nanocience, in a first instance, provides scientific knowledge to be used and applied by nanotechnology.

The Interdisciplinary of Nanotechnology - at First Glance

According to the definition of nanoscience presented above, nanoscience is "an interdisciplinary field of science combining physics, materials science, the chemistry of complex molecules, and related disciplines".

In fact, in a first analysis, nanoscience stands on scientific concepts and knowledge of:

  • Physics;
  • Materials science;
  • Chemistry of complex molecules;
  • And related disciplines.

"There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom"

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988), an 
American physicist, is considered the father of nanotechnology.

The scientific work of Richard P. Feynman
encompassed several topics such as:
  • The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics;
  • The theory of quantum electrodynamics;
  • The physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium;
  • The proposal of the parton model, in particle physics.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965 was awarded jointly to Sin-Itiro TomonagaJulian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles".

Feynman held the Richard Chace Tolman professorship in theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech).

Feynman was the pioneer in the field of quantum computing.

Feynman introduced for the first time the concept of nanotechnology.

Richard P. Feynman became much popular not only on the physics community but also on the whole scientific community due (among several works) to his classic and famous talk (also designated lecture) on December 29th, 1959 at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)called "There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom".

During this lecture, Feyn
man considered the possibility of direct manipulation of individual atoms as a more capable technology for synthetic chemistry than the technology used at the time.

In other words, Feynman talked about the concept of nanofabrication and the bottom-up approach.

Decades later, this talk inspired the conceptual beginning of nanoscience and nano
technology. In other words, Feynman sowed the seeds of nanoscience and nanotechnology and only decades later these seeds gave the first fruits. In fact, there are moments in the history of science that determine its future. This talk was certainly one of them. In my personal opinion, this momentum marked the future, not only of science and technology, but of our civilization.

This apparently simple timeline of decades represents decades of hard work from scientists. And it will represent even more hard work in the future decades.

    The Following Decades

    On the early days, the only players engaged into the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology were practically scientists, editors, publishers and organizations that allocate funds for research projects.

    With the advance of R&D in nanoscience and nanotechnology, a whole and wide range of new emerging actors came on the scene:
    • Innovators and innovation managers;
    • Industries;
    • Investors and shareholders;
    • Science parks and technological parks;
    • Regulators and regulatory organizations;
    • Lecturers;
    • Event organizers;
    • Educational programs;
    • Discussion groups;
    • Movements involved in ethical issues;
    • Movements involved in discussions of philosophical nature;
    • And many more.
    With the passage of time and the emergence and popularization of Internet, nanocience and nanotechnology began to be the target of media attention. Gradually began the hype and buzz. And gradually, the hype and buzz gave place to overhype and overbuzz.

    Since there wasn't regulation yet, the overhype and overbuzz generated suspicions and unfounded conspiracy theories.

    At the same time, nanoscience continued to develop and gave a tremendous input to nanotechnology, which also witnessed an enormous development.

    Finally, in recent years, regulatory organizations have begun to develop regulatory work. Currently, some regulatory organizations are already working at full speed.

    The Transversality of Nanotechnology

    During these decades, with the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, scientists have realized that nanotechnology had almost infinite potential applications.

    Nanotechnology is, due to its vast and wide spectrum of applications, transversal by nature. Is not an abuse of language stating that nanotechnology will have in the future, applications in practically all sectors and fields of our daily life:
    • From new alternative, more efficient and profitable, more affordable and cleaner energy resources to disruptive, more targeted, more efficient, less evasive and more affordable drug delivery systems (DDS) and pharmaceuticals;
    • From intelligent and functional, self-cleaning, interactive and custom on demand textiles to more precocious, sensitive, accurate, capable of high throughput, more affordable technologies of diagnostics, disease detection and medical imaging;
    • From faster processing speed, higher capacity, more capable and more affordable computing systems to highly innovative and incredible techniques in tissue and organ repair and regenerative medicine in general, helped by tissue engineering.
    There is a whole entire, almost unlimited (or unlimited even) range of applications of nanotechnology in our daily lifes. Some of them are already a reality today. Nevertheless, the most part is yet to come. The promises of a better life are tremendously great. So the governments and politicians have the capacity, willingness, good sense and sense of responsibility to make it possible.

    The Interdisciplinary of Nanotechnology - a More Detailed View

    Since the works of Richard Phillips Feynman, nanoscience and nanotechnology were subjects of intensive development and enlisted the help of many fields of science and technology, which in the meantime also developed intensively.

    Consequently, the interdisciplinary nature of nanotechnology has grown immensely. Follow just some examples 
    of fields of science and technology that, over the last decades, also arrived on the scene contributing to the development of nanotechnology:
    • Chemistry;
    • Chemistry of colloids;
    • Biochemistry;
    • Molecular Biology;
    • Neuroscience;
    • Biology;
    • Photonics;
    • Metamaterials;
    • Quantum Physics;
    • Mathematics;
    • Computational science, high performance computing, cloud computing, computational biology, bioinformatics and cheminformatics.

    Final Comments

    Science and technology have no frontiers. These frontiers are in the Human mind. Therefore, nanotechnology, transversal by nature, stands strongly on interdisciplinary and integration of science & technology.

    Therefore, it is not easy today to answer to the question "Where did nanotechnology come from?" The answer is complex and requires necessarily be viewed in a historical perspective.

    However, whatever the variables in the equation, the origin of nanotechnology converges always to three coordinates:

    • One name: Richard Phillips Feynman;
    • One day: December 29th, 1959;
    • One lecture: "There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom"


    Regarding the definitions of nanoscience and nanotechnology, according to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI):

    I used as source the followin
    g NNI URLs:

    Regarding Richard Phillips Feynman, his work and his famous lecture "There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom", I use Wikipedia as source.
    Regarding the The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965, I used the following source:

    "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965". 16 Apr 2012

    Saturday, 14 April 2012

    Multi-Functionalised Nano-Graphene Oxide Nanocarriers in Controlled Release & Drug Delivery

    2-D graphene provides outstanding properties that are currently being studied. These outstanding properties include:
    • Electronic properties; 
    • Thermal properties; 
    • Mechanical properties. 
    For example, 2-D graphene is currently being explored in the following applications (among many other applications):
    • Advanced nanoelectronics; 
    • Nanomembranes; 
    • Nanocomposites. 
    In this article, I will discuss some of the applications of nano-graphene oxide in nanomedicine.

    Nano-graphene oxide (NGO) is a single-layer of graphene oxide sheets with a lateral width of a few nanometres.

    The Journal of Materials Chemistry published on 19 Nov 2010 a work titled "Multi-functionalized graphene oxide based anticancer drug-carrier with dual-targeting function and pH-sensitivity". Scientists from P. R. China designed a nano-graphene oxide (NGO) anticancer drug nanocarrier that combines different targeting mechanisms.

    Many anti-cancer drugs are toxic and/or cause undesirable side-effects. This is due to the fact that these anti-cancer drugs:

    • Target tumour cells; 
    • And also target healthy cells. 
    A team of scientists leaded by Yongsheng Chen (from Nankai University, P. R. China) have developed a controlled release system using multi-functionalised NGO as a drug nanocarrier for drug delivery.

    The team headed by Chen selected NGO to build up the drug nanocarrier because this nanomaterial has a very high surface area available. Thus, NGO presents high ability to carry a large amount of drug, thereby contributing to a more efficient therapy and with increased yield, on the standpoint of dosage.

    The NGO was multi-functionalized in order to become targeted. For this purpose, the Chen's team used several approaches:

    • The team headed by Chen linked super-paramagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles to the NGO nanocarrier. By proceeding this way, the NGO nanocarrier became targeted to the tumour cells by an external magnetic field;
    • Many cancer cells have a high number of folate receptors on their external cellular surface. As a consequence of this fact, folic acid is a targeting agent of some (not all) tumour cells. Therefore, the Chen's team attached folic acid to the nanoparticles. More precisely, the Chen's team conjugated folic acid onto Fe3O4 nanoparticles via the chemical linkage with amino groups of the 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APS) modified superparamagnetic NGO–Fe3O4 nanohybrid, in order to generate the multi-functionalized NGO. This procedure made the NGO nanocarrier more likely that the drug nanocarrier will enter cancer cells rather than healthy cells;
    • Cancer cells are typically more acidic than healthy cells. Therefore, the Chen's team developed the NGO nanocarrier with the ability to increase drug release when the pH value of the surrounding environment decreases. This mechanism warrants that the drug is released to the tumour cells, minimizing this way the uptake of anti-cancer drug by healthy cells.
    After multi-functionalization process, the NGO nanocarriers were then loaded (via π–π stacking or pi-pi stacking) onto the surface of this multi-functionalized NGO with a strong anti-cancer drug: Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (Dox).

    Cell uptake studies were carried out the Chen's team, using fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled or Dox loaded multi-functionalized NGO drug nanocarrier to evaluate:

    • Their targeted delivery property; 
    • Toxicity to tumour cells. 
    These studies focused on cell uptake and toxicity were carried out in human breast cancer cells in vitro. The results show that this multi-functionalized NGO drug nanocarrier has potential applications for targeted delivery and the controlled release of anticancer drugs.

    Obviously this scientific breakthrough needs further studies aiming improvement in what concerns toxicology, biodegradability and passing from the in vitro studies to humans. Anyway, this discovery has intrinsic value and may pave the way for progress in nanotechnology in drug delivery.

    This scientific breakthrough is relevant due to the following reasons:

    • Progress was achieved in the improvement of targeting of nanocarriers against cancer cells; 
    • The effectiveness of treatments is improved, since practically all the anti-cancer drug is delivered to cancer cells; 
    • The undesirable side-effects for patients are significantly reduced; 
    • Progress was achieved in the applications of graphene (in this case, graphene oxide) in controlled release and nanotechnology in drug delivery. 
    For further information, I suggest to readers the following links (which served as the basis for this article):

    Thursday, 12 April 2012

    Counterfeit Drugs And Nanotechnology

    Counterfeit medicinal products in general and counterfeit drugs in particular began to proliferate in practically the entire world. Counterfeit drugs are, nowadays, a real social scourge:
    • Are a major problem for public health;
    • Are a threat to the pharmaceutical industry;
    • Are a problem for the regulatory organizations, since they have to develop updated regulation to combat this scourge. 
    These counterfeit products did not appear suddenly. Rather, these counterfeit products appeared gradually.

    A half dozen small factories started operating illegally in a place somewhere in the world. These small factories established "strategic partnerships" with firms operating in clandestine distribution sector worldwide.

    Initially, when this "innovative activity" was still a novelty, these "entrepreneurs" had room to expand their businesses and prosper. In fact, the "entrepreneurs" who had better "strategic vision" enriched at the expense of innocence, ignorance and poverty of many populations, lack of preparation of authorities and police organizations and absence of regulation, at an early stage.

    At a later stage (already more developed) a "new emerging sector" began to take shape. New "challenges" were put to the "sector". These "brilliant entrepreneurs" with greater greed and greater "strategic vision" have applied some of their profits by reinvesting in the expansion of their "highly innovative business" thus becoming owners of small empires within a "new emerging sector".

    Meanwhile, since the Internet was in frank expansion, these "visionary entrepreneurs" have taken another step towards the "innovation": they decided to extend their business to the Internet through illegal practices of misleading advertising, email spam and illegal sales.

    New generations have placed their eyes on these "brilliant examples to follow". Therefore, these new generations, with studies in accounting, business, management, international trade, economics, macroeconomics, marketing and advertising (and more) gave wings to their "highly refined entrepreneurial spirit" and started their business in this "sector already in consolidation".

    In fact, counterfeit medicinal products in general and counterfeit drugs in particular are today a serious challenge to FDA and their similar regulatory organizations.

    In addition to this serious problem, FDA and their similar regulatory organizations are now working on regulatory affairs regarding nanotechnology in general, nanotechnology-enabled drugs and nanotechnology-enabled foods & beverages.

    However, for a strong and effective regulation in this matter, adapted to real needs of our society, several programs are currently being implemented.

    One of these programs is a collaborative platform with several specialized players. Among these several specialized players are R&D institutions, universities and specialized laboratories operating in nanocharacterization.

    In fact, I strongly believe that much more laboratories of nanocharacterization are needed urgently. These laboratories are, by excellence, the players that have the capability of characterize all and every existing nanoengineered nanoparticle – a first step for risk monitoring and risk assessment.

    However, the highly qualified scientists and staff operating at these nanocharacterization laboratories, as well as their facilities and equipment, are also capable of counterfeit detection. In fact, nanocharacterization laboratories have the capability of determining if unknown, suspect or under investigation samples of drugs or other medicinal products are counterfeit or not.

    Ironically, nanotechnology, while putting FDA and similar organizations challenges of unique dimensions throughout History (in what concerns to toxicity), it also provides solutions to solve some of the challenges they are facing: counterfeit medicinal products and drugs.

    Therefore, more nanocharacterization laboratories are needed urgently due to the following reasons:
    • Fight against counterfeiting of everything or almost everything (namely counterfeit medicinal products and counterfeit drugs);
    • Operating in tight collaboration with regulatory organizations in the scope of risk assessment and risk monitoring.
    Therefore, nanotechnology provides simply the best technological tools to fight against counterfeit medicinal products and drugs.

    Tuesday, 10 April 2012

    Good Winds From FDA

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published yesterday (April 9, 2012) in YouTube a video entitled "Innovation Pathway at FDA."

    Personally I really like the video and especially the positive message it conveys. Here in my blog I give my Sincere Congratulations to the FDA by the video, and especially by the highly positive message it sends.

    This message is a very strong set of clear positive signs of optimism, hope, constructive spirit, innovative spirit, proactive and highly dynamic attitude announced to the world.

    As far as I know, FDA is among their counterparts around the world an entity with an unquestionable credibility and effectiveness. My perception is that FDA is the reference with respect to regulations in the areas it is responsible.

    However, FDA has been discussed in the most recent years with destructive attacks and comments. For example:
    • Apparently innocent criticism;
    • Explicit accusations of not updating (or updating very slowly) its regulations when confronted with new challenges brought by an emerging new reality which includes the requirement for innovation and new and emerging sciences and technologies;
    • Unfounded conspiracy theories which proliferate throughout the Internet;
    • Sensationalist news trying to undermine the credibility of this organization.

    Some of these attacks had eventually caused some abrasion on the image of FDA as an organization.

    Therefore, FDA needed to launch a campaign containing a very strong message of positivism, optimism, hope and confidence addressed to the world.

    The reality has changed in recent years. It is a fact that reality has changed and will change constantly. Thus, FDA and similar organizations must adapt to new realities, new paradigms and the requirements they entail.

    But what really happened in the most recent years that really made ​​this change and therefore lead to attacks on FDA and similar organizations, and consequently the release of this video?

    Several changes took place.

    Firstly, the counterfeit medicinal products began to proliferate in practically the entire world. The counterfeit drugs have become a real scourge in terms of public health and a threat to the pharmaceutical industry.

    Moreover, nanoscience and nanotechnology grew and developed at an impressive speed.

    Similarly, nanomedicine grew and developed at a considerable speed. Nanomedicine gained critical mass and is proving to have potential to contribute constructively to improve medicine and biomedicine. This is just the beginning. Many more discoveries are to be announced and to a higher speed.

    Likewise also grown and developed the applications of nanotechnology-based products in the food & beverages sector. This includes not only food, but also packaging and manufacturing processes.

    With the fast development of nanotechnology with applications in medicine (nanomedicine) and in the food & beverages industry, have also emerged real risks associated with toxicity, both environmentally and in terms of public health. These risks are directly related to nanoengineered nanoparticles (nanoparticles intentionally modified by humans for the fulfilment of certain specific purposes). Scientific studies show that these nanoparticles (in opposition to naturally occurring nanoparticles) present the greatest risks to the environment and public health, with respect to toxicity.

    Anyway, regulating with quality and adjusted to the real needs of today's society (especially regarding nanotechnology-based health products and food & beverages) is an enormous task, having a complexity of unique proportions. I would say, of historic proportions. It is a complicated challenge and only give good results if integrated, coordinated, standardized and implemented with much committed collaboration with different players, such as innovators, scientists, R&D institutions, universities, industries, health professionals, consultants, IT professionals and many more players.

    It is notorious that the video puts much emphasis on technological innovation and collaboration. It is an extremely strong reinforcing of confidence message. In my opinion this message is fully justified, to calm down conspiracy theories and media sensationalism.

    This version was published on April 11, 2012, since the original one was removed.

    In these areas of science and technology, the worst that can happen is a lack of regulation, which causes a gray zone, providing opportunities to bad professional journalists to make pieces of questionable quality, thus generating fears, suspicions and unfounded conspiracy theories.

    FDA is really working hard. I did not learn that with this video. I had already noticed with various press releases issued recently, mainly during the year of 2011 and during the current year. This video just confirmed what I already knew.

    However, the ordinary citizen, who is not involved in these matters, did not know. Through this video, the ordinary citizen gets to know.

    The tasks that FDA faces are of odd proportions and dimensions absolutely gigantic in the history of our civilization. I can only wish the greatest success to FDA and give them strength.

    Compartmentalization of Nanomedicine

    Compartmentalization of Science

    Science and technology do not emerge and develop totally compartmentalized. Any attempt to compartmentalize the scientific and technological knowledge in specific fields is, in a certain extent the product of the human mind.

    Which solution must then be proposed: do not compartmentalize science and technology in specific fields? I am sure that this is not the solution.

    I believe that science and technology should continue to be compartmentalised. However, I also believe that the partitioning of science and technology should not act like a corset that atrophies its development.

    Science and technology need freedom to expand, grow, interact, jump out from their compartments, take advantage of interdisciplinary and science integration. Situations where science and technology have potential to be transversal should not face barriers, with the exception of regulation and ethics.

    These aspects assume greater importance today and in the future, given the fact that interdisciplinary plays a more important role in the development of science and technology.

    Compartmentalization of Nanotechnology

    One good example of the above presented is nanotechnology.

    Nanotechnology is extremely vast, complex, tremendously promising.

    Nanotechnology requires urgent and appropriate risk monitoring and assessment, urgent and appropriate regulation and serious debate on ethical and philosophical issues. Nanotechnology does not need at all overhype, over buzz, sensationalist journalism, which only originates unfounded suspicions and fears. Nanotechnology does need serious and transparent information, communication and education.

    Nanotechnology: Fields versus Fields of Application

    Can we identify specific fields within the nanotechnology? Of course.

    However, I believe that is more correct and appropriate to identify specific fields of application on nanotechnology.

    I propose that we examine in some detail the approach of nanotechnology by fields versus the approach of nanotechnology by fields of application.

    Hardly nanotechnology can be compartmentalized in specific fields. The only really valid compartmentalization I consider is the nanoscale: 100 nm - 1 nm. And even this compartmentalization requires some self discipline in the approach.

    On the other hand compartmentalizing nanotechnology by field of application seems to me a wiser and less confusing approach.

    Compartmentalization of Nanomedicine

    Let us examine nanomedicine as an example.

    Regarding nanomedicine, if we consider nanomedicine a field of nanotechnology (approach of nanotechnology by fields) it may seem a consensual choice at first glance (but only at first glance). In another context and another perspective, nanomedicine could also be considered a field of medicine or biomedicine. Why not? There is medicine on a macroscopic scale. There biomedicine that may be addressed to the microscopic scale, sub-micron scale or even nanoscale. At this point, one might argue: well, nanomedicine can be considered a field of nanotechnology, but also may be considered a field of medicine or biomedicine. It depends on the context and nature of the approach. In other words, it depends on what we are talking about. It makes some sense, in my opinion. But it seems to me a bit confusing.

    On the other hand, we can consider nanomedicine as nanotechnology with applications in medicine, including biomedicine (approach of nanotechnology by field of application). This perspective is more consensual. Besides, it meets the definition of nanomedicine and there are no conflicts of compartmentalization of science. We do not have to worry about "consider" nanomedicine as a field of nanotechnology or as a field of medicine or biomedicine.

    Final Comments

    More important than discussing the theme of compartmentalization of nanotechnology or nanomedicine is to recognize that these sciences cannot be in any way, isolated from the scientific and technological interdisciplinary.

    Nanomedicine may be a field of nanotechnology or
    medicine or biomedicine. Nanomedicine may be perceived as an independent science. Nanomedicine may be faced as nanotechnology applied to medicine or biomedicine. This is almost irrelevant. Much more important is that nanomedicine will always have access to scientific and technological interdisciplinary.

    Tuesday, 3 April 2012

    The NanoMedRev Project

    This is my first article in my first blog, NanoMedRev. Therefore, I take this opportunity to introduce my blog to the world. My experience as a blogger is null and is starting now. I'll have to gain experience and expertise gradually over time, article after article, redesign after redesign, always having in mind a continuous effort of self-improvement. It is, after all, how I am. 

    NanoMedRev stands for "Nanomedicine Revolution".

    Imediately after the blog title, stands the following motto: "Nanomedicine Revolution, with Passion and a High Sense of Responsibility".

    Is nanomedicine really a "revolution"?

    In the last decade (2000-2010) was published a huge number of scientific research works with applications in various fields of nanomedicine. This number of publications grew with a rate very interesting over the last decade. Besides, after 2010, the 
    number of publications of scientific research works with applications in various fields of nanomedicine continues to grow and gaining a significantly substantial critical mass.

    Everyday new works are published presenting breakthroughs and progresses in the aplication nanotechnology for medical purposes. Nanoengineered nanoparticles, nanocarriers, micelles, liposomes, nanocrystal drugs, gold nanoparticles, nanofibers, quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanopolymers, nanotechnology-based scaffolds for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering show technological capabilities to pave the way to new and important advances in medicine and biomedicine. Many of these advances would never be possible without a nanotechnology-enabled approach. Thus, in my personal opinion, is no abuse of language to state that nanomedicine is revolutionizing medicine and biomedicine. In other words, nanotechnology is revolutionizing  medicine and biomedicine  through nanomedicine.

    The motto of NanoMedRev is: "Nanomedicine Revolution, with Passion and a High Sense of Responsibility".

    At a first glance, this seems an intrinsic contradiction. "A revolution with passion". Well, this makes some sense. Many of the revolutionaries who idealize a revolution do it because they really believe in their cause, engage themselves deeply into the cause and ultimately make the revolution with passion. 

    However, a revolution "with a high sense of responsibility"? Does this sound right? Does this make sense? Revolutions are not known for their high sense of responsibility, at least apparently, though in fact in some cases this can really happen.

    Well, quite honestly, to me it makes perfect sense. 

    Some revolutions are often associated with anger, fury, changing by the imposition of force, rebellion, inconsequential actions and little or total lack of sense of responsibility.

    However, some other revolutions are peaceful, progressive, slow, sustained and carried out under the auspices of a high sense of responsibility.

    The first idea of ​​revolution given above does not apply to the concept of NanoMedRev. However, the second model of revolution applies entirely to the concept of NanoMedRev. It is this way I perceive how nanotechnology will bring real benefits to medicine and biomedicine, step-by-step, day after day, year after year. Thus, NanoMedRev stands for a nanomedicine revolution, peaceful, progressive, slow, sustained and carried out under the auspices of a high sense of responsibility. Just add a great passion, and the concept is complete. This is how my personal thinking fits into my personal blog - NanoMedRev - and into the nanomedicine revolution as well.

    Why do I put so much emphasis on the high sense of responsibility in the nanomedicine revolution? Because there are numerous reasons for this, such as:
    • Environmental concerns;
    • Public health concerns;
    • Ethical concerns;
    • Philosophical questions.

    Therefore, I'll try as much as I can to address the nanomedicine revolution, its concerns and questions seriously and with a high sense of responsibility.

    And, let me add, due to my own personal nature, I write about all these issues with great passion. It is the only way I find to do a work of quality: with passion.
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